Studies show that teachers often underestimate how much bullying is occurring at their school since they only see about 4% of bullying incidents that occur. "Bullying a review: presentations to an adolescent psychiatric service and within a school for emotionally and behaviorally disturbed children." Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 5.4 Oct. Further, victims of bullying only report it to school adults one-third of the time, usually when the bullying is being suffered repeatedly or has caused injury.
Child and adult bullies have a tendency to have low tolerance for frustration, trouble empathizing with others, and a tendency to view innocuous behaviors by their victims as being provocative.
Bystanders of bullying, those who witness it but are neither the primary bully nor the victim, tend to succumb to what they believe is peer pressure to support bullying behavior and fear of becoming the victim of the bully if they don't support the behavior. "Bullying in middle schools: prevention and intervention." Association for Middle Level Education 37.3 Jan.
Examples of physical symptoms include those often associated with stress, like headaches, stomachaches, changes in appetite, dizziness, and general aches and pains.
Psychological symptoms often include irritability, anxiety, sadness, trouble sleeping, tiredness in the mornings, loneliness, helplessness, and feeling isolated.
Victims of these behaviors also tend to develop or increase their severity of anxiety.
Bullies and victims tend to experience depression more than their peers who have not been involved in bullying, which can lead to academic problems, frequent absences from school, loneliness, and social isolation.
Actual or perceived obesity of the victim is also a risk factor.
Being underweight is slightly associated with being bullied.
However, it can also occur at work and include behaviors like verbal abuse, sabotaging the victim' s job or work relationship, or misusing authority.