(3) By the 4th or 5th day, neutrophils predominate in the consolidated alveoli. (bacteremia) via the lymphatic system, or because of damage to lung endothelial cells. Despite the vaccine's shortcomings, levels of protection as high as 60% have been reported for elderly populations, and protection levels in youger adults are higher.Damage to the lung can disrupt gas exchange so severely, that the patient becomes cyanotic and literally suffocates. This occurs in 25% of cases of pneumococcal pneumonia (need for blood cultures) (Secondary sites may be infected heart valves, joints, peritoneal cavity) Importance of the RES system demonstrated by those without spleens overwhelming bacteremia. Bacteria breach the blood-brain barrier and enter the cerebrospinal fluid meningitis (4) - neutrophils are replaced with scavenging macrophages which clear the debris from the inflammatory response. alpha hemolytic on blood agar plate (usually mucoid colonies because of capsule). A protection rate of 60% is high enough to reduce the incidence of infection in the population and thus provide some herd immunity for people in the population who do not mount an antibody response to the vaccine.
Healthy people can usually fight off pneumonia infections.
However, people who are sick, including those who are recovering from the flu (influenza) or an upper respiratory illness, have weakened immune systems that make it easier for bacteria to grow in their lungs.
It is often impossible to identify the specific culprit.
Many bacteria are grouped into one of two large categories by the laboratory procedure used to look at them under a microscope. Bacteria are stained with special dyes, then washed in a special solution.
Doctors often classify pneumonia based on where the disease is contracted.
This helps predict which organisms are most likely responsible for the illness and, therefore, which treatment is most likely to be effective.
Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung that is most often caused by infection with bacteria, viruses, or other organisms.
Occasionally, inhaled chemicals that irritate the lungs can cause pneumonia.
Transmission: person to person from a sick person or a carrier is via the aerosol route. Alcohol and drug intoxication (depresses phagocytic activity, depresses the cough reflex). Splenectomy or splenic dysfuntion (sickle cell anemia) more prone to bacteremia and death. Trauma to the head that causes leakage of spinal fluid through the nose predisposes to meningitis. Upper respiratory tract infections otitis media and sinusitis. Pneumococcal Pneumonia the classical symptoms sudden chill, fever, cough, and pleuritic pain. Damage to the brain can lead to hearing loss, blindness, learning disabilities, paralysis and death. The pneumococci that reach the lungs escape phagocytosis by the alveolar macrophages and the neutrophils (that arrive later as part of the inflammatory response) because of their antiphagocytic capsule. The bacteria multiplying in the alveoli of the lungs release cell wall components (teichoic acid and peptidoglycan) which activate complement, trigger cytokine release and cause a local inflammatory response.
Epidemics can occur in institutional settings such as nursing homes or in the close quarters of the military barracks. THE HOST'S INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE TO THE PNEUMOCOCCI CAUSES THE SYMPTOMS OF THE DISEASE! 13.3 for the four zones or stages of lung involvement.
(Neutrophils are drawn in by strong chemotactic signals produced by the pneumococci, and by the products of the alternative complement pathway.) a classic example of an extracellular pathogen.