The bombs on this night were dropped mainly in the town centre, Springfield and Moulsham.The GHQ Line part of the British hardened field defences of World War II runs directly through Chelmsford with many pillboxes still in existence to the north and south of the city.
Many of the ringleaders of the revolt were executed on the gallows at what is now Primrose Hill An Anglo-Saxon burial was discovered at Broomfield to the north of Chelmsford in the late 19th century and the finds are now in the British Museum. In the 17th century many of the victims of Matthew Hopkins (the self-styled "Witchfinder General") spent their last days imprisoned in Chelmsford, before being tried at the Assizes and hanged for witchcraft.
Henry VIII purchased the Boleyn estate in 1516, and built Beaulieu Palace on the current site of New Hall School.
The town disappeared for a while after the Romans left Britain.
The town became the seat of the local assize during the early 13th century (though assizes were also held at Brentwood) and by 1218 it was recognised as the county town of Essex, a position it has retained to the present day.
Hylands Park, the site of the annual V festival, then hosted a prisoner of war camp, and from 1944 was the headquarters of the Special Air Service (SAS).
Since the 1980s Chelmsford has suffered from a decline in its defence-related industries, most notably the Marconi Company with all of its factories either being closed or sold.
In 1199, following the commissioning of a bridge over the River Can by Maurice, Bishop of London, William of Sainte-Mère-Eglise was granted a Royal Charter for Chelmsford to hold a market, marking the origin of the modern town.
An under-cover market, operating Tuesday to Saturday, is still an important part of the city centre over 800 years later.
The town was given the name of Caesaromagus' (the market place of Caesar), although the reason for it being given the great honour of bearing the Imperial prefix is now unclear – possibly as a failed 'planned town' provincial capital to replace Londinium or Camulodunum.
The remains of a mansio, a combination post office, civic centre and hotel, lie beneath the streets of modern Moulsham, and the ruins of an octagonal temple are located beneath the Odeon roundabout.
A Neolithic and a late Bronze Age settlement have been found in the Springfield suburb, and the town was occupied by the Romans.